CFP: After Social Media: Alternatives, New Beginnings, and Socialized Media

Fenwick McKelvey, Sean Lawson and myself are going to put together a special issue of Social Media + Society on alternative social media. We’re aiming for early 2019. Here’s our Call for Proposals:

The editors seeks 500 word abstracts for proposed articles for a special
issue of Social Media + Society on “alternative social media.” The
editors welcome proposals from scholars, practitioners, and activists
from across disciplinary boundaries so long as the work is critical and
empirically rich.

Our call starts with a question: what comes after social media? It is
hard to imagine something other than the current configuration of social
media – of Facebook and Twitter – but signs of discontent abound. Social
media companies have become deputized to police and moderate whilst
being accused of poisoning civil discourse. Their integration of
advertising and targeting signals a new epoch of promotional culture,
but no one trusts the media anymore. As Brooke Duffy argues in (Not)
Getting Paid to Do What You Love
, everyone can create, so long as they
don’t mind going broke doing so. In sum, today’s social media is
broken… but what’s next?

For the past several years, one answer to “what’s next?” has been
“alternative social media.” Alternative social media encompasses a wide
range of systems, from diaspora* to Ello to Tokumei. In contrast to what
Robert Gehl calls “corporate social media,” such as Facebook, Twitter,
Google+, and Pinterest, alternative social media (ASM) “allows for users
to share content and connect with one another but also denies the
commercialization of speech, allows users more access to shape the
underlying technical infrastructure, and radically experiments with
surveillance regimes.”

Thus, alternative social media may be understood in relation to larger
histories of alternative media, documented by scholars such as Megan
Boler, Nick Couldry, Chris Atton, and Clemencia Rodriguez, and carried
through into social media alternatives by collectives such as Unlike Us.

Earlier instances of ASM included diaspora*, built as a critical
response to the growing dominance of Facebook in the late 2000s, with a
goal of decentralizing social media data and allowing end users more
control over their personal information. Later, decentralized systems,
such as Twister and GNU social, came online as alternatives to Twitter.
The Pinterest alternative Ello gained a lot of attention, especially due
to its manifesto with the opening provocation: “Your social network is
owned by advertisers.” Alternatives to Facebook and Twitter have even
appeared on the Dark Web (see the S-MAP for examples).

As they have developed over the past several years, alternatives decried
the censorship and manipulation of content found in corporate social
media. Building on this, new alternatives dedicated to “free speech”
arose during and after the contentious elections in Western countries in
2016 and 2017, including the Twitter alternative Gab. Proclaiming its
defense of free speech – especially against the perceived liberal bias
of Silicon Valley-based corporate sites – Gab promises freedom for
everyone, including the “alt right” and white supremacists, to speak.

But other networks, such as the federated system Mastodon, have been
built to allow for powerful moderation of discourse, with Codes of
Conduct that often prohibit hate, sexist, homophobic, transphobic, or
racist speech. Indeed, while they are wildly divergent in their
politics, both Gab and Mastodon have positioned themselves as antidotes
to corporate social media. These debates over speech in ASM echo the
longstanding tension identified by alternative media scholars, where
many alternative media developers seek to socialize media and bring it
in line with leftist politics, but see their discourses appropriated by
right-wing media organizations.

Regardless of whether they are right or left, alternative social media
face a simply reality: they just aren’t popular. Compared to the
billions of Twitter and Facebook users, alternative sites’ user bases
are tiny. Whether or not their goal ought to be massive scale, the
powerful network effects of corporate social media – as well as the
bewildering array of alternatives – certainly have stifled the growth of
the alternatives. Still, the alternatives deserve critical attention,
because they force us to rethink what we mean by “social media.” What
tethers so many people to so few corporate sites? And what actual
“alternatives” to corporate social media do the current slate of
alternative social media platforms propose?

Topics that may be explored in this special issue of Social Media +
Society might include:

  • ethnographic or participant observation engagements with alternative
    social media communities
  • software studies analysis of shifts in underlying ASM technologies
    * narratives from practitioners who have built, moderated, or
    extensively participated in ASM
  • comparative analysis of two or more ASM platforms
  • studies of ASM as political, technical or cultural discourses or desires
  • regulatory and policy discussion regarding controversies involving ASM
  • speculative proposals or fictions about new ASM that address existing
  • analysis of appropriation of ASM innovations by corporate social media

Timeline/Important Dates [subject to change]

  • DECEMBER 20 2017: 500 word abstracts and CVs/resumes may be sent to
  • JANUARY 20 2018: Acceptance notifications sent to authors
  • MAY 15 2018: Full drafts due to
  • JULY 15 2018: Comments sent to authors by editors
  • SEPTEMBER 15 2018: Final drafts submitted to Social Media + Society for
    peer review
  • FEBRUARY 2019: Special Issue Publication

Questions? Please email

Farewell, Galaxy2

Tried logging onto Galaxy2, a Tor-based social networking site I’ve participated in since its inception in early 2015. It’s been down for a while, and like many Dark Web sites, it looks like it’s gone for good. We get a rare note about its closure, though, with a note from its founder, Lameth (see below).

Galaxy2 started after Galaxy, another Dark Web social networking site (one I’ve written about) shut down in late 2014. Lameth and a bunch of “Galaxy Castaways” met up on another DWSN, Visibility.i2p, and decided to start anew.

I feel very privileged to have seen these migrations and even participating in them. I’m very saddened by the end of this site. These days, social networking on an anonymizing network sounds bizarre, but of course connecting with other people via a pseudonym is as old as the Internet itself. Moreover, Lameth ran a very civil site. There were moments of discord, but overall, Galaxy2 (like Galaxy before it) belied the reputation of the Dark Web as solely comprised of criminals and pornographers.

I have documented much of Galaxy2 (as much as I could anyway) for my forthcoming book, Weaving the Dark Web, and I know other researchers have paid attention to the site. So it will not totally fade from the public record, at least.

And, perhaps someone will take Lameth’s lead and make a Galaxy3…

Lameth’s Message

Hash: SHA256

So, it finally happened. The server broke down and your terrible host here (me, not the current host, mind you!) hadn’t been keeping regular backups off the server… I’m trying to see what I can salvage, but to be honest with you guys, then I’m not very optimistic.

The admins and a few other users has for a long time now been privy to my plans about either handing over G2 for someone else to run, or shutting down G2 completely. Seems like the server got tired of waiting for me to get my shit together and took the decision for me.

Why? Well, a couple of reasons, really, but the major one being purely selfish. I knew I was doing a shit job hosting G2, and as it grew more and more popular, so did my guilt and stress about not being a proper host and a proper admin. I couldn’t dedicate the time for running and managing G2 that I felt it deserved. So at some point I came to a conclusion; I think the mature decision was to give it up and hand it over to someone more capable, for the sake of the community. Turns out I also have a terrible habit of never actually doing the stuff I intend to do, so even the process of handing over the reigns to another host never really got further than me putting out a few feelers and questions to a few people.

So now we’re here. G2 seems to be done, although I try and find time to see if I can manage to salvage something that might make the admins and the new host capable of continuing G2.

I’d like to encourage people to migrate out to other Tor Hidden social Services, regardless of whether G2 can be recovered or not. I hope other social sites will pop up (Galaxy3, anyone?), but I believe there are still some of the “older” chat services around. They might be a good place to reconnect with other G2 users.

Even if G2 is recovered and continues, then this is the end of the road for me. I have little time to spare for this or any online community due to family and work stuff. It’s a bittersweet farewell for me. One one hand, it lifts a burden from my shoulders that I don’t care to carry around any longer; on the other hand I really did enjoy being a part of this community, of being part of the beginning and an integral part of its long existence. Three years (almost) feels like a lifetime for a Tor Hidden Service.

I might be reachable on the following mails, but please forgive my response times…:

Please use PGP to encrypt messages to me. The key below will expire soonish, but ask me for a new key once this one no longer works.





New Collections and Possible Directions

By Diana G. Zulli

We are happy to announce that over the last two months, the S-MAP has doubled in size. We have added mobile versions to the Imzy, Ello, and Voat collections. More notable is the addition of a new collection Mastodon instances. Here’s what we’ve been up to:

  • More of Imzy, including mobile: Founded out of Salt Lake City, Utah, Imzy is marketed as a “friendlier” alternative to Reddit and is designed to support positive interactions among niche communities. Unfortunately, Imzy recently shut down, so we are fortunate to have captured the mobile versions of this site while still available.
  • Mobile shots of Ello: Ello functions as an alternative to Pinterest and provides a space for users to showcase art, fashion, and photography. Ello interactions extend to hiring opportunities, shopping, and creative collaborations, all of which are available through the app.
  • Mobile shots of Voat: Voatify, the corresponding app for the social networking site Voat, is also similar to Reddit. Voatify houses a collection of themed categories, termed “subverses,” and is popular for its no censorship policy.
  • Mastodon collection, including instance rules: Mastodon is a federated, open-source social networking site that values small communities and bottom-up site moderation. Mastodon’s user experience is similar to Twitter, where users can post short messages and interact with each other. Unlike Twitter, Mastodon users join volunteer-led “instances” or communities. Each Mastodon instance reflects a distinct community with rules and privacy policies unique to that instance. The S-MAP now houses both the desktop and mobile versions of several Mastodon instances, as well as dozens of collected rules pages.

In total, the S-MAP had added nearly 300 items to the above collections. Specific items include site/app descriptions, user reviews, sign-up processes, privacy and user policies, and site interfaces.

Since the items on the S-MAP include a wide range of topics, we are confident the S-MAP will be useful for a variety of teaching, research, and methodological objectives. Potential directions include:

  • Teaching:
    • The ethical considerations of information sharing/data gathering online
    • Alternative social media sites as a business
    • Privacy and censorship in alternative media
  • Research:
    • The nature of online communities
    • How the interfaces of alternative social media sites construct user behavior compared to more mainstream social media sites (e.g., posting behavior, viewing behavior, construction of appropriate topics, community formation).
    • The ideological construction of site values/priorities. That is, how site descriptions, instructions, and policies promote different beliefs or values.
    • How the notion of “alternative” is inscribed into each site’s interface and design
  • Methodological Perspectives:
    • Platform Studies (e.g., exploring interfaces, social media architecture, and how these systems can be modified)
    • Textual of Content Analyses (e.g., analyzing/comparing the material realities of each site)
    • Visual Analyses (e.g., analyzing compositional elements of site images to see how they work in relation to a broader system of meaning)

We are excited by the growth of the S-MAP and hope to include more content in the near future. Contact us if you draw on our collections!

New Collections: The Dark Lair and Imzy

We have two new collections in the S-MAP: The Dark Lair, which is a Tor-based social networking site, and Imzy, which is based in our home state of Utah. The latter is especially notable. Here’s our description of it:

Founded by ex-Reddit employee Dan Comas in 2016, Imzy is a social networking site dedicated to fostering civil communication among members. It is largely organized around topical groups. Members can join various groups based on what they are interested in. A key innovation in Imzy is the ability for a single user to have multiple pseudonyms associated with her/his account; these pseudonyms can be linked to specific groups, giving the user multiple identities across the site. Moreover, the site allows users to post anonymously, as well. The business model of Imzy is based on tipping: members can give each other monetary tips for their content, and Imzy takes a percentage. As of this writing, Imzy will not allow for advertising. The site’s headquarters is in Salt Lake City, Utah.


What Would Feminist Alternative Social Media Look Like?

Chitra Nagarajan’s piece in the Guardian, “What Does a Feminist Internet Look Like?“, is an excellent call to action for taking feminist principles and applying them to technology usage and governance. I won’t recap it here; you ought to read the original. But I will highlight two key passages. This:

In this future, there are more feminists and LGBT people in internet governance, making decisions and creating technologies, in contrast to the current male domination of this space. According to Facebook’s own figures released in 2015, men made up 68% of all employees, 77% of those in senior leadership and 85% of those working in technology. Twitter’s 2015 figures reveal that men make up 66% of the company, 87% of those in tech jobs and 78% of those in leadership. Google is no better – men make up 69% of all employees, 76% of those in leadership and 81% of those in technical jobs.

and this:

What does it mean when the primary spaces for so many public and private interactions, including activism, are owned by corporations from one part of the world, run by mainly white men? We need to create alternative forms of economic power around technologies. Using and sharing information about free and open-source software, tools and platforms is key to this.

One of the visions I’ve had for alternative social media is precisely the one Nagarajan is expressing here: a need to challenge the power of corporate social media by developing, supporting, and using alternatives to Facebook and Twitter. Nagarajan, however, rightly draws attention to the dynamics of gender and ethnicity in this mix.

In theory, a feminist alternative to Twitter or Facebook is quite possible. Feminist technologists could use Gnu Social or Elgg to develop a feminist social network, realizing some of the goals Nagarajan has laid out.

In practice, however, I have not seen such an effort in the alternative media space. There are small things, such as “Feminism on the Dark Web” on Galaxy2. But so far — unless I’m missing it, which is very possible — I see no Feministbook or Femicroblog.

So, what would a feminist alternative social media system look like? Can one be built?

The Need for Social Media Alternatives

Julie and I have a new article, a short piece in Democratic Communiqué, on the need for alternative social media. It’s a paper that explains some of the reasons why we’re building the S-MAP. It also calls on media justice organizations, including the publisher of Democratic Communiqué, to start using alternative social media systems (such as Twister or GNU social) as part of their larger media practices. After all, we want democratic media, and we’re not as likely to get it with corporate social media.

Speaking of building the S-MAP, we’ve had a relatively quiet summer, but we will be adding more materials to the site over the coming months. A new addition is the bibliography — we expect that will grow as more attention is paid to alternative social media. If you have suggestions for academic articles that explore alternative social media, let us know. Another new addition to the S-MAP will happen soon — we’re going to pay for a certificate and offer an HTTPS connection (please be patient — this takes money to do, after all!).

Going back to Democratic Communiqué, in addition to our short article, there are other pieces relevant to alternative media broadly. First, Sandra Jeppson has a longer research article on “alternative media power.” Second, there’s a review of S-MAP Advisory Board member Victor Pickard’s fantastic book America’s Battle for Media Democracy.

People need a place to share and debate things without fear of prosecution: An Interview with Kyle Farwell and Keefer Rourke of

by Julie Snyder-Yuly

Why is creating a totally anonymous blogging site important? Why would someone want to be involved in a site like this? I had the opportunity to interview Kyle Farwell and Keefer Rourke, the two high school student creators of Tokumei, an anonymous microblogging platform (see it in the S-MAP).  In this interview, they talk about their background and interest in software and websites, the importance of anonymity, and explain what is.

JSY: Your website says that Tokumei is run by two broke high school students. Are you still in high school? Also, who is your partner, and how long you have been working together?

Kyle: We’re still in high school. We’ll be studying computer science university next year. I’m building Tokumei with Keefer Rourke. We met in elementary school. Keefer’s been helping out with design and usability decisions since shortly after I started working on Tokumei in November. He’ll be contributing front-end code starting after exams in a couple weeks.

JSY: Tell me a little bit about yourselves and what got you interested in writing and maintaining software and websites.

Kyle: My dad introduced me to video games when I was way too young, and it all went downhill from there. I started learning Logo and Scratch when I was 8 or so, took Visual Basic and Java game development classes at 10-14, and have substituted socialization and real hobbies for programming throughout my spare time ever since. I don’t like playing games much anymore, but I still write some. I started doing web development at some point, probably thanks to VB and Java turning me off from everything else. Thankfully I discovered werc and have been working with it lately to bring sanity to the web.

Keefer: I’ve been fascinated with computers for as long as I can remember, when I was little I would always tinker with things but later discovered I didn’t have the hardware resources to do. I turned to software, figured out how text could have so much more meaning. I started with Python as most young programmers do, switched to web development, followed up with C/C++, and then discovered a large interest in mathematics. Over the last few years I’ve written stuff varying from funny scripts to intense algorithms work.

JSY: What is Tokumei, and how does it work?

Keefer: Tokumei is a simple, anonymous microblogging platform. You visit the site, you read posts, maybe follow some tags so you can keep up with your interests. Posting is easy, you hit a button, type stuff, tag it, and leave it for others. We don’t record your IP address or any other personal information with your post, so you can speak freely without fear of your post being linked back to you.

JSY: What was your motivation behind creating Tokumei?

Kyle: I’ve enjoyed anonymous discussion on sites like 8chan and my own werc-based message board werchan, but comparing them one day to popular social networks it occurred to me that anonymous discussion platforms have gone largely unchanged since 1999 and 2channel. 2ch needs a massive posting guide, and even I screw up formatting syntax on my own message board to this day. I decided to make the real discussion and honesty that anonymity provides accessible.

That, and Twitter pissed me off by requiring a phone number to register.

JSY: Why is creating an anonymous blogging site important to you, and why do you think that anonymity is so important to many social media users?

Kyle: There are two benefits of anonymity. The first is obvious but important: people need a place to share and debate things without fear of prosecution or of being fired for holding unpopular opinions. Edward Snowden wouldn’t have been able to disclose information about the NSA’s illegal spying programs safely with the anonymity provided by Tor.

The second advantage of anonymity is that it allows real discussion. In traditional social networks, people who are famous in real life and who have used the site for a long time amass the most followers. When all information is treated equally, only an interesting post or an accurate argument works.

The second advantage of anonymity is that it allows real discussion. In traditional social networks, people who are famous in real life and who have used the site for a long time amass the most followers. When all information is treated equally, only an interesting post or an accurate argument works.

The first benefit of anonymity can be provided by Tor paired with a simple pseudonym on most social media sites (except some like Facebook and Twitter which demand real identities), but Tokumei is almost alone in delivering the second with forced anonymity for every post. In other words, a pseudonym separates a user from their real identity, but true anonymity separates a user’s posts from each other.

2channel founder Hiroyuki Nishimura explained anonymous posting well in an interview with Japan Media Review. When asked why he used perfect anonymity for 2channel, Nishimura said:

Because delivering news without taking any risk is very important to us. There is a lot of information disclosure or secret news gathered on Channel 2. Few people would post that kind of information by taking a risk. Moreover, people can only truly discuss something when they don’t know each other.

JSY: Who is your target audience for Tokumei, and why do you target them? Do you have any idea of how many users you have for this site?

Kyle: There are some groups that need anonymity like activists and whistleblowers, but I think it does good for everyone. The Tor Project maintains a good list of some people who benefit from anonymity.

Since we don’t store any logs, we have no idea how many users we have. All we know is that there are currently 321 posts and 512 replies.

JSY: You are a member of the Free Software Foundation. What is it and how did you become involved?

Kyle: The FSF is a nonprofit started by Richard Stallman with the goal of promoting software freedom. Free Software is software that can be used, modified, and redistributed freely. Users can share Free Software, study its source code, and make improvements freely. When software is not free, it can hide malware and create vendor lock-in.

Tokumei is Free Software (under the ISC license), so anyone can host their own site with their own rules and improvements.

I learned about the Free Software Foundation through the GNU project’s relentless insistence that it’s “GAHNOO SLASH LOONIX”, not “Linux”.

Keefer: I found out about it from Kyle.

All software sucks, be it open-source [or] proprietary. The only question is what can be done with particular instance of suckage, and that’s where having the source matters.”        — viro

JSY:  Have you had much success in your request for code or donations? What are your plans for the code and donations?

Kyle: No, so far we haven’t received any contributions. For now this isn’t a big deal; the two of us can handle code (slowly) and we have some free credit for hosting through DigitalOcean’s and Amazon’s student programs. The current server is somewhat slow and if we see an increase in traffic we may need donations to cover an upgrade.

Our plans are pretty straightforward: code contributions will be reviewed and merged; and monetary donations will go to hosting and (if they exceed what is needed for hosting) advertising.

JSY: What are the biggest challenges you face in maintaining this site?

Kyle: One time Hacker News drove our CPU load up to like 3500% and most requests timed out for a while, but adding caching fixed it and made the site about seven times faster.

JSY: Your rules for the site are very simple — nothing that violates local or Canadian law. Have you had any problems enforcing this?

Kyle: We have a simple system in place for people to report illegal content in posts, but so far no one has used it to report anything. Should we ever receive a request, the plan is simply to verify that the post it refers to is illegal in Canada and delete it. We don’t store any information about posters so we can’t help law enforcement identify users. Our rules say you can’t post things that violate local law (law where the poster lives) but since we don’t track users’ locations we won’t typically be able to enforce it unless Canada has a similar law.

Our location is the biggest barrier to offering a good platform for free speech. Unfortunately, Canada has harsh limitations on free speech, and service providers (us) are responsible for user-generated content so we have to delete potentially illegal content as soon as possible after seeing it rather than waiting for a court order.

Rules offend me, so our rules are as simple as possible. It’s absurd that most social networks disallow things like offensive comments. I love being offended; makes me think. See this video for more.

“I like offending people, because I think people who get offended should be offended”        — Linus Torvalds

JSY: What are your future plans or goals with Tokumei? Do you see it growing or developing in any particular direction?

Kyle: To start, world domination.

Keefer: That was a joke (I hope).

Kyle: I have no idea whether or not Tokumei will grow at all. I like it personally, but I’m a bit biased. 2channel has been very successful as an anonymous forum in Japan, and 4chan to an extent in the west. As their traffic drops and Internet users become unable to navigate forms with more than two fields or think up messages longer than 140 characters, maybe Tokumei is what people want. Or maybe with increasing surveillance and political correctness, anonymity is dead.

Keefer: Direction-wise, social networks are doing some interesting things lately. Polls, livestreams, current event summaries, and so on. My tech teacher almost solely relies on Twitter for his news. The trouble is that most of these fancy things actually hand-pick news they think is important to determine what you should see and censor what you shouldn’t. Their usefulness is subjective to an audience that is content with being told what to do, what to see, what to act on. Hopefully Tokumei has a place in reducing algorithmic bias in politics and news.

Fibreculture special issue on Activism and Technology

Robert W. Gehl

Fibreculture has a special issue on activism and technology, titled “Entanglements.” Edited by Pip Shea, Tanya Notley, Jean Burgess and Su Ballard, the issue features articles by both academics (including myself) as well as activists.

As Shea et al note in their introduction,

During the 2009 post-election protests in Iran, YouTube proved useful for raising awareness and mobilising people; but later, the Iranian government used these videos to crowd-source the identification of protesters.

Activists used Skype to communicate during the Egyptian uprising thinking it was safer than the terrestrial telephone system; however, when they examined files from the intelligence agency in the chaos after Mubarak’s fall they learnt their Skype calls were being closely monitored by Egypt’s security service .

One of the most circulated images appealing for public sympathy and money following the 2015 catastrophic Nepal earthquake turned out to be a ruse—an old image from North Vietnam—its circulation initiated by unknown people with unknown motivations.

These examples serve to remind us that while digital technologies are now deeply entangled with activist practices that are focused on contributing to social change, the philosophies and capacities embedded within these technologies often contradict, counteract, or challenge social justice and human rights aspirations—sometimes in unexpected ways that could not have been predicted.

Theirs is an extremely important argument: the communication technologies we use are never neutral, and we have to consider their politics carefully. This is a major reason we’ve started the S-MAP, and I’m hoping that more academics and activists cast a critical eye at corporate social media and start to explore alternatives. Moreover, the work can’t stop there: we have to cast a critical eye at the alternatives, as well.

Two new collections in the S-MAP: and Ello

Two new collections are now available: Voat and Ello. Voat is an alternative to Reddit. As their About page puts it,

No legal subject in this universe should be out of bounds. Our aim is to build a site that serves the needs and wants of our users; one that strives for quality over quantity, and doesn’t pander to the lowest common denominator in return for traffic.

Ello is pretty famous as a social media alternative that promises never to sell user attention to advertisers. According to their manifesto:

We believe a social network can be a tool for empowerment. Not a tool to deceive, coerce, and manipulate — but a place to connect, create, and celebrate life.

You are not a product.

Both collections are now available, with more new collections in store for 2016!